Extraction, Characterization, Stability and Biological Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Chamomile Flowers
Dried flowers of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) are largely used for their medicinal properties. In the present study, we examined the pharmacological properties of aqueous and methanolic fraction isolated from two varieties of German chamomile. HPLC-MS analysis of chamomile extract confirmed apigenin-7-O-glucoside as the major constituent of chamomile; some minor glycoside components were observed along with essential oils. These glucosides were highly stable in solution at various temperature ranges and their degradation occured after long-term storage and extraction conditions at different pH and solvent. Methanolic fraction isolated from chamomile flowers demonstrated higher biologic response in inhibiting cell growth and causing induction of apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines compared to aqueous chamomile fraction. Apigenin glucosides inhibited cancer cell growth through deconjugation of glycosides that occurs in the cellular compartment to produce aglycone, apigenin. Taken together, the pharmacological profile of chamomile extract was dependent upon extraction process, storage conditions which affected the biological activity.
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